Dedicated to the Memory of's BruceFollow Us on Twitter
Am I
Search Celebrities (By Last Name)
Search Collections
In The News
Voting Station
Philip I of Hesse
Please vote to return to collections (Voting Results will appear on Right Sidebar).
    (November 13, 1504-March 31, 1567)
    Born in Marburg, Germany
    Landgrave of Hesse
    Leading champion of the Protestant Reformation
    Organized the Schmalkaldic League of Protestant German states (1530)
    Defeated by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in the Schmalkaldic War (1547)
    Imprisoned by Charles (1547-52)
    Released and returned to Hesse (September 12, 1552)
    His attempts to organize a pan-European Protestant alliance failed when he was unable to get Martin Luther and Huldrich Zwingli to put aside their differences about the Eucharist.
    He kept alternating between trying to confront Charles V militarily and negotiating with him to recognize the Protestant churches.
    Martin Luther wrote that he lived 'constantly in a state of adultery and fornication.'
    He bigamously married one of his sister's ladies in waiting (1540).
    He founded the first Protestant university at Marburg.
    He tried to get the various Protestant factions (Lutherans, Calvinists, etc) to put aside their differences and work together.
    He surrendered to Charles V on the conditions that his lands in Hesse would not be encroached on and that he would not be imprisoned, only for Charles to renege on the second condition.

Credit: C. Fishel

    For 2019, as of last week, Out of 47 Votes: 85.11% Annoying
    In 2018, Out of 12 Votes: 41.67% Annoying
    In 2017, Out of 14 Votes: 50.0% Annoying
    In 2016, Out of 3 Votes: 33.33% Annoying
    In 2015, Out of 99 Votes: 58.59% Annoying
    In 2014, Out of 294 Votes: 50.0% Annoying
Annoying Collections
Site News