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Philip I of Hesse
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Royalty
    (November 13, 1504-March 31, 1567)
    Born in Marburg, Germany
    Landgrave of Hesse
    Leading champion of the Protestant Reformation
    Organized the Schmalkaldic League of Protestant German states (1530)
    Defeated by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in the Schmalkaldic War (1547)
    Imprisoned by Charles (1547-52)
    Released and returned to Hesse (September 12, 1552)
    His attempts to organize a pan-European Protestant alliance failed when he was unable to get Martin Luther and Huldrich Zwingli to put aside their differences about the Eucharist.
    He kept alternating between trying to confront Charles V militarily and negotiating with him to recognize the Protestant churches.
    Martin Luther wrote that he lived 'constantly in a state of adultery and fornication.'
    He bigamously married one of his sister's ladies in waiting (1540).
    He founded the first Protestant university at Marburg.
    He tried to get the various Protestant factions (Lutherans, Calvinists, etc) to put aside their differences and work together.
    He surrendered to Charles V on the conditions that his lands in Hesse would not be encroached on and that he would not be imprisoned, only for Charles to renege on the second condition.

Credit: C. Fishel


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