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Emmy Noether
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Mathematician
    (March 23, 1882-April 14, 1935)
    Born in Erlangen, Germany
    Birth name was Amalie Emmy Noether
    Known for her contributions to the fields of abstract algebra and theoretical physics
    Developed the Theories of Rings, Fields, and Algebras
    Noether's Theorem explains the fundamental connection between symmetry and conservation laws
    Introduced the concept of 'begriffliche Mathematik' (purely conceptual mathematics)
    Published seminal theses critiquing Algebraic Invariant Theory and Galois Theory
    Broke ground in the study of ascending and descending chain conditions (now known as Noetherian Induction and study of Noetherian groups/modules/space)
    Wrote Idealtheorie in Ringbereichen (Theory of Ideals in Ring Domains), establishing and defining the general commutative ring theory (1921)
    Broke ground in studying the Invariant theory of finite groups - developing what is now known as the Noether Bound and later introducing the Noether normalization lemma (1915, 1926)
    Gave the first general representation theory of group representation and associative algebras, merging them into a single arithmetic theory of modules/ideals/rings in ascending chain conditions
    Founded the theory of central simple algebras with Emil Artin, Richard Brauer, and Helmut Hasse
    Later introduced the Skolem–Noether Theorem and the Brauer–Noether Theorem, dealing with non-commutative algebra and 'splitting fields'
    Namesake for the Emmy Noether Mathematics Institute in Algebra, Geometry and Function Theory at Bar-Ilan University in Ramat Gan, Israel (founded in 1992)
    She has been nicknamed Our Lady of Abstract Algebra.
    She insisted on teaching classes even on state holidays when the campus was closed.
    She belonged to several radical socialist parties in Germany.
    She looked like Emma Goldman (both as a young woman and in her later years).
    Some of her students claimed she would respond rudely to those who questioned her theories.
    She had the habit of talking quickly, frequently confusing her doctoral students.
    She became known in her later years for her single-minded approach to her studies, resulting in an unkempt appearance and horrible table manners.
    She frustrated many of her students by not following a set lesson plan, but rather using the time to spontaneously discuss algebraic theory.
    She is largely unknown outside of academic circles, overshadowed by female token scientists like Sophie Germain and Marie Curie.
    She was sympathetic to the cause of the Stalin regime, accepting a guest professorship in Moscow and even attempting to obtain a position with the University before leaving Germany.
    Her father and brother were both accomplished scientists who now posthumously live in her shadow.
    She audited her way through college because women were barred from University classes.
    She also fought to secure a teaching position at the University of Göttingen, when women weren’t allowed to teach.
    She revolutionized the fields of mathematics and physics, despite receiving no salary from the University for 10 years.
    She influenced Pavel Alexandrov, Albert Einstein, Jean Dieudonné, Hermann Weyl, Norbert Wiener, and Lise Meitner.
    Einstein called her 'the most significant creative mathematical genius thus far produced since the higher education of women began.'
    She was awarded the prestigious Ackermann-Teubner Memorial Prize in mathematics (1932).
    She was invited by the International Mathematical Congress in Zurich to give a plenary lecture in 1932.
    She fled Germany when the Nazis came to power.
    The crater Nöther on the far side of the Moon is named after her.
    Her conceptual approach to algebra led to a body of principles unifying algebra, geometry, linear algebra, topology, and logic.
    She is credited with fundamental ideas that led to the development of algebraic topology from the earlier combinatorial topology, specifically, the idea of homology groups.
    Her work is believed to have led to the discovery of Higgs Boson.

Credit: BoyWiththeGreenHair


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