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Pyotr Kropotkin
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    (December 9, 1842-February 8, 1921)
    Born in Moscow, Russia
    Geographer, evolutionary theorist, philosopher and anarcho-communist
    Wrote 'An Appeal to the Young' (1880), 'In Russian and French Prisons' (1887), 'The Conquest of Bread' (1892), 'Memoirs of a Revolutionist' (1899), 'Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution' (1902) and 'Fields, Factories and Workshops' (1912)
    Advocated eliminating national governments and replacing them with a free federation of small communes
    Advocated replacing capitalism with an economic system based on mutual aid and voluntary cooperation
    He was born into the Russian aristocracy.
    His father was a member of the Rurik dynasty that had ruled Russia before the Romanovs and owned 1200 serfs.
    He served as a page in the imperial court.
    He used his membership in the Russian Geographical Society as a cover while distributing revolutionary propaganda.
    Although he was an advocate for non-violent revolution, he refused to condemn the assassination of Tzar Alexander II.
    After the Russian Revolution, he was offered the post of Minister of Education in Alexander Kerensky's provisional government, but he declined, feeling it would violate his anarchist principles.
    His father disinherited him after he quit the army.
    He explored Siberia, Manchuria and the glaciers of Sweden and Finland.
    After his arrest for subversive political activity, he escaped prison with the help of friends, then celebrated with his friends at one the finest restaurants in St. Petersburg, having correctly assumed the police would never look for him there.
    He then went into exile in Switzerland, France and England.
    He wrote the article on anarchism for the 11th edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica.
    During a visit to the US, the New York Herald commented, 'He has none of the bitterness and dogmatism of the anarchist we are accustomed to see here.'
    When the Communists took power in Russia, he said 'This buries the revolution.'

Credit: C. Fishel

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